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Luftwaffe Camouflage

Monogram Publications

Errata and Addenda

presented with the generous permission of Thomas H. Hitchcock

"The Official Monogram Painting Guide to German Aircraft 1935 - 1945" by Kenneth A. Merrick and Thomas H. Hitchcock is widely regarded as the Bible of Luftwaffe Camouflage and Markings research. This book revolutionised the way researchers and modellers looked at late war German camouflage. Although lamentably long out of print, it remains the master  work on this popular subject.

A recent posting on HyperScale's "Plane Talking" discussion group inquired as to the Errata and Addenda inserts provided with late printings of the Monogram Guide. In response, David Brown has obtained permission of Thomas Hitchcock to publish not only the insert from the Guide, but also the Addendum sheet from his earlier "Messerschmitt O-Nine Gallery" book of 1973.

The information is presented verbatim and in chronological order. The only changes are to the format of the original pages which cannot be perfectly reproduced in HTML format. Where any ambiguity exists (eg the conflicting descriptions of colours 82 and 83), assume that the later information from the Monogram Painting Guide is correct.

We are very grateful to both Mr Hitchcock and David Brown for their roles in bringing this information to HyperScale.

We also look forward to the publication of the new Monogram Painting Guide, possibly sometime late 1998 or early 1999.

1. Addendum to "Messerschmitt '0-Nine' Gallery" by Thomas H. Hitchcock


Prewar colors 61 / 62 / 63 now have been identified conclusively.


RLM Munsell Code Approximate Equivalent Color
Color 61 Dunkelbraun 10YR 2.5/1 FS 595a - 30045 semigloss
Color 62 Grün 5GY 4/2 FS 595a - 34159
Color 63 Hellgrün 5GY 5/1 Similar to RLM Grau but w/ more green


The so-called latewar colors, officially introduced during August 1944, comprised three colors: 81 / 82 / 83.

These three colors were intended for all land-based aircraft which were intended for daylight operations. In conjunction with these colors, the undersurfaces were slated for color 76, replacing the discontinued color 65.

Unfortunately, the RLM directive did not identify the color associated with its number. Nor apparently did it manufacture color cards containing samples of the new colors. The paint manufacturers did, however, evolve mixing formulas which ensured a reasonable degree of consistency.

At this time only two painting guides which listed the late-war colors have been located: a November 1944 chart for the Do 335 and a February 1945 chart for the Me 262. Both contain contradictions and ambiguities. For example: the Dornier chart lists both 81 and 82 as being dark Green while the Messerschmitt guide states that 81 is Brown-Violet and 82 is identified as Light Green. Inasmuch as there are obvious errors in both charts, neither can be claimed as infallible.

Therefore, our conclusions listed below are based in part on the above mentioned painting guides, but more conclusively by other means. Previous German practice, examination of surviving aircraft, paint formulas and period color photographs provide the second best evidence in lieu of RLM color cards.


RLM Munsell Code Approximate Equivalent Color
Color 81 Braunviolett 5Y    3/1 FS 595a - 24087 but not semigloss
Color 82 Dunkelgrün 5GY    3/2 Listed as 81 in 'O-Nine'
Color 83 Hellgrün 7.5GY    4/4 Listed as 81 in 'O-Nine'


Finally, color 99 Yellow/Green which was not represented by a chip, can be identified provisionally. This color is available currently from certain German aircraft manufacturers under its old wartime number. It is assumed that no color change exists since the wartime color description matches the sample we recently obtained.


RLM Munsell Code Approximate Equivalent Color
Color 99 Gelb / Grün

7.5GY     5/4

Similar to 62 in "O-Nine'


SOURCE: Hitchcock, T.H., 1973. Messerschmitt 'O-Nine' Gallery. Monogram Aviation Publications, Boylston, Massachusetts, 122p.


2. Addendum to "The Official Monogram Guide to Painting German Aircraft 1935-1945" by Kenneth A. Merrick and Thomas H. Hitchcock






Col. 2, ¶ 1, 5th line down should read: 1/144.


Photo caption - Hakenkreuz not Halkenkreuz.


Photo at base shows an Fw 190 A-5, W.Nr. 1177, BG+KQ.


Col. 2, ¶ 3, 5th line down should read: Hakenkreuz.


Lower left color is Braunviolett.


Lower left color is Braunviolett.


Rear fuselage top deck camouflage was divided in the same manner as the Fw 190 A-8 (see p.30).


Photo shows a JG 4 aircraft. Rear fuselage bands are black-white-black.


Center color is Grünblau.


Caption - 9 lines from the top should read: Staffel.


Caption last paragraph, 2nd line should read: Schleswig.


Aircraft at top is a Ju 87 D-5.


Col. 2, ¶ 1. All three Austrian Ju 86 E-2s received standard export colors.


Color 68 Hellolivgrün is more precisely Bright Olive Green.


Tone screens on 4-view representing Colors 70/71 were inadvertently transposed.


Tone screens on starboard view (at bottom) of vertical tailplane are mistakenly transposed with the separation line at the junction of the vertical tailplane and the fuselage.


Top caption, 6 lines down should read: Hakenkreuz.


Caption last line should read: Rüstsatz.


Caption 2nd line should read: (2./KG 200).


Lower photo shows a Ju 290 A-4U, W.Nr. 0165. Mottle was composed of Color 81 Brown-Violet spots, not dark Green.


Starboard vertical tailplane should have two colors. The fin should be solid Color 71, while the rudder was divided in the same manner as the Ju 87 (see pg. 85) using Colors 70 and 71.


Top photo suffers from faulty photocopying. The original color photograph of this aircraft shows the two top colors to have been tan and brown (Italian colors?). The light-colored stipple in our photo is only the result of photocopying the print's texture.


Caption, 7 lines from the top should read: Hakenkreuz. Camouflage of all Ju 388 L-1's was in two colors. All upper surfaces were a brownish green, with the rest of the aircraft being in Color 76 Light Blue. Vertical tailplane mottle was in brownish green (probably Color 81).


Top photo shows two NSFK Landesgruppe 13, non-military gliders.


Drawing caption should read: Taifun / Typhoon.


Col. 1 should read Storch, not Störch.


Caption, line 2 should read: KL 35 B-1.


Some advanced models of the Hs 293 did have splinter camouflage schemes on upper surfaces.

Throughout this book, the authors have identified Color 65 Hellblau as Light Blue, but a more accurate translation would be Bright

Blue. Color 82 Hellgün should therefore read: Bright Green. Protective coating, 00 Wasserhell (see p. 143), should be Water Bright.

Since the publication of this book, the authors have not discovered definitive official documentation for the true identity of Colors 81, 82 and 83 ... the so-called late-war colors. However, the preponderance of evidence from all sources suggest that Color 81 was Brown-Violet, Color 82 was Bright Green and Color 83 was Dark Green. This does not negate the fact that there existed considerable contradiction between various aircraft painting charts regarding the true description of these three late-war colors.


SOURCE: Merrick, K. A., and Hitchcock, T.H., 1980. The Official Monogram Painting Guide to German Aircraft 1935-1945 (including Appendices and Supplements); Monogram Aviation Publications, Boylston, Massachusetts, 144p.

Page created on Saturday, September 19, 1998
This page last updated on Friday, May 18, 2001

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